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Ingredients explained: Peptides
elena lezhneva
Ingredients explained: Peptides

Peptides are the new class of compounds that have recently become very popular in cosmetology. Why? Because the research (backed up by serious sources like National Institutes of Health, USA) shows that peptides can slow down, and even reverse the skin aging.

Peptides are the new class of compounds that have recently become very popular in cosmetology. Why? Because the research (backed up by serious sources like National Institutes of Health, USA) shows that peptides can slow down, and even reverse the skin aging.

Right now, peptides are considered to be the most effective anti-aging treatment. Let's look into this in detail.

What are peptides?

Peptides are protein molecules consisting of a small number of amino acids connected to each other. If there are more than 50 amino acids, this molecule is called a protein. If there are less than 50 amino acids, then this is a peptide. Sometimes they are also called oligopeptides (from the Latin word "oligo", "a little") to emphasize that the amino acids in the compound are few.

How do peptides work?

Modern cosmetology usually uses small peptides containing less than 10 amino acids. Even though the peptides have a very small size, they still need "assistants" to penetrate the skin. These are usually fatty acids, which are attached to the peptide chain. Using the lipid tail, peptides "squeeze" through the horny layer of skin and penetrate deep into the skin, where they exert their effect. Most peptides are rather capricious and fragile molecules. They are sensitive to pH, and lose their activity in the presence of acids and retinoids. They are also destroyed by free radicals and enzymes from the deep layers of the skin. Therefore, the products containing peptides should be used together with suitable products for skin cleansing and preparation.

Different peptides - for different skin concerns

New peptides appear almost weekly. To date, the list of peptides, which are used in cosmetic products, includes several hundreds of names. These compounds are called "cosmetics of the future": they are not allergic, rarely cause any adverse reactions, and are well tolerated by pretty much all people. When used correctly are very effective and can quickly change the condition of the skin.

However, it is important to remember that peptides are not similar to traditional cosmetic ingredients, they are easy to destroy or damage. Often the lack of effect from the products containing peptides could be explained by their incorrect application or even mistakes made by technologists when creating a formula.

Theoretically, it is possible to create millions of different combinations based on a dozen amino acids. The matter is complicated by the fact that the same amino acids located in the different order, can give different effects: move around just two of them, and you will turn the oil-splitting peptide into rejuvenating!

We are going to cover the most common and beneficial peptides below. While this detailed read is not for a cookie-pusher :) However, it's a good reference to use when checking ingredients on the new product, containing peptides.

Stimulating peptides can enhance the ability of skin cells to synthesize the necessary substances. It is known that with age, the skin loses this ability, and the synthesis of collagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid become less active. As a result of these processes, the skin "sags", becomes less elastic and dense, wrinkles form faster and deeper.

Mizon Original Skin Energy Peptide 500

picture from www.frivolousgirl.com

Signal Peptides

In young skin, the substances called "matrikines" (or signals) are active. With age, native matrikines become less active and signal cells work less and less efficiently. Biotechnological matrix peptides penetrate the skin and have a pronounced stimulating effect to make the cells come back to life. They affect the growth factor of the dermis, triggering the synthesis of structural substances.

Examples of signal peptides to look for!

INCI (International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients name): Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3 (Tradename - Matrixyl)

INCI: Palmitoyl Oligopeptide (Dermaxyl)

INCI: Palmitoyl Tripeptide-1 (Aldenine)

INCI: Palmitoyl Tripeptide-5 (Syn-Coll)

Remodeling peptides

The problem of skin aging is not only the reduction in the number of fibers. In young skin, the collagen fibers are arranged in orderly, definite groups, called fibrils. The correct assembly of collagen is controlled and regulated by peptides-proteoglycans, which with age, as it is easy to guess, decrease in the skin. But if you apply "peptides-collectors" to the skin as part of your skincare, then this can be restored, at least partially, increasing the density and elasticity of the skin. In isolation, these peptides are used only at the initial skin aging, when there's still enough collagen in the skin. If the skin has already changed with age, it is wise to use collectors together with signalers.

Examples of remodeling peptides to look for!

INCI: Acetyl Tripeptide-9 (Dermican)

INCI: Tripeptide-10 Citrulline (Decorinyl)

Stimulating peptides

In the process of age-related changes, the connection between the surface and deep layers of the skin weakens. This boundary is formed by specific proteins - Collagen VII type and syndecan, whose production decreases with age. That's why with age skin becomes duller. Fortunately, now there are peptides, stimulating the synthesis of such collagen and syndecan, which re-compact and re-create the border while restoring the foundation epidermis.

INCI: Acetyl Tripeptide-11 (Syn-Orage)

INCI: Hexapeptide-10 (Serilisine)

Unlike most plant and chemically synthesized ingredients peptides don't interfere with the processes occurring in the skin, however, they restart physiological processes, returning them to the natural tempo of young and healthy skin. Such peptides are used both for healing of injuries and for care for thin and sensitive skin.

A separate class are peptides, which stabilize the skin, increasing its own protection potential in various ways. One of them are antioxidants, replacing antioxidant peptide systems of the skin, lost with age. Others - Anti-Glycation peptides, "expand" sugar cross-links, which glue collagen fibers together, turning them into useless tangles, unable to contract and stretch. Some peptides specialize in fighting with stress due to the action of reactive oxygen species formed as a result of skin damage by ultraviolet. There are also those that contain copper - a mineral, necessary for the processes of healing and the work of enzymes involved in building the structure of the skin.

Peptides-stabilizers

Peptides-stabilizers are used in recovery products, applied after tanning, to reduce harm to the skin from smoking or anti-stress cosmetics for inhabitants of mega-cities.

INCI: Tripeptide-1 (Kollaren)

INCI: Prezatide Copper Acetate

INCI: Hexapeptide-11 (Peptamide-6)

INCI: Diaminopropionoyl Tripeptide-33 (Preventhelia)

These stimulating and barrier peptides are produced by bacterial synthesis. They are used in products for anti-aging skincare, thinned and damaged skin.

The recommended concentration of these peptides in the products: 0.5-5% in a solution.

Target peptides

Not all peptides act on the skin, generally improving its protective functions or enhancing elasticity and firmness. Bio-technologists have created many peptide molecules that can affect certain structures and skin cells, due to which it is possible to get a variety of effects - from lightening the skin to reducing sensitivity to cold.

TonyMoly Bio Ex Cell Peptide Line

Muscle relaxant peptides

Peptides - muscle relaxants can reduce the mobility of facial muscles, and these peptides were developed among the first. Often they are called peptides with the effect of botox, although not all of them have a mechanism of action similar to that of botulinum toxin.

It should be noted that many muscle relaxant peptides do show very high activity and are capable of practically paralyzing muscles in the laboratory. But in order to achieve such an effect in real life, it is necessary to create special conditions, which turned out to be not possible for all peptides. The most effective products, which actually reduce the mobility of the forehead muscles and help to get rid of the wrinkles of the upper and middle third of the face, usually include several peptides in a sufficiently high concentration.

In most cases, it is not recommended to use simultaneously with such formulas containing acids and retinoids, since these ingredients can destroy peptides. In addition, the mechanism of action of acids and retinoids somewhat contradicts the way peptides act: acids and retinoids cause in the skin the development of an inflammatory reaction and activation of the circulation, which can prevent the establishment of a link between the peptide and its "object" (wrinkle, etc).

The most famous of muscle relaxants is the Argireline peptide. It acts like a botox: competes with one of the proteins that are involved in creating the protein complex necessary to release acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft, which leads to muscle contraction. Argireline replaces one of the proteins, and the complex ceases to function, as a result, the muscle stops shrinking. To develop a full (and long!) relaxation effect, it is necessary to apply the remedy to the skin for at least 30-35 days. Argireline has been popular for over 10 years, despite the appearance of new peptides.

There are muscle relaxants with different mechanisms of action: for example, leifazil reduces the sensitivity of nerve cells to stimuli, suppressing the flow of calcium through the membrane - in fact, it mimics the effect of one of the "happiness hormones" - enkephalin. Syn-ake, best known as the "poison of the Indian temple viper" (it repeats the structure of the snake venom toxin molecule), blocks the receptors of muscle cells that "open the door" for the flow of sodium ions. No sodium - no muscle contraction.

Important: miorelaxants reduce the expression of mimic wrinkles only, they do not act on wrinkles formed as a result of age-related skin changes. Products with muscle relaxants can be used at a young age too, some of them can support and prolong the effect of injections of botulinum toxin. In the case where wrinkles are not too deep, a quality remedy with muscle relaxant peptides can replace the injections.

It is important to know that in no case should such products be applied to the area of the eyelids. Reducing the mobility of the muscle of the eyelid can lead to the development of ptosis - a paralysis of the century.

Often muscle relaxants are combined with signal and remodeling peptides in order to get the effect of not only relaxing the muscles but also filling wrinkles.

INCI: Acetyl Hexapeptide-3, Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 (Argireline)

INCI: Pentapeptide-18 (Leuphasyl)

INCI: Dipeptide Diaminobutyroyl Benzylamide Diacetate (Syn-Ake)

INCI: Pentapeptide-3 (Vialox)

INCI: Acetyl Hexapeptide-25 (Inyline)

Keep in mind, no matter how you like the effect of peptides, muscle relaxants can't be used constantly, because in this case normal micro-circulation will be disturbed, which in due course will have a bad effect on the condition of your skin.

Peptides affecting skin pigmentation

Pigmenting peptides are peptides that mimic melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MCG). The MCG, which itself is of a peptide nature, is necessary in order to trigger the synthesis of melanin in the skin. This hormone binds to the receptors of melanocytes, the cells that synthesize the pigment melanin, as a result of which the process of creating melanin is activated. Most plant components block enzymes that participate in the synthesis (in particular, tyrosinase). Biotechnologists have created several peptides imitating MCG that can stimulate the process of pigmentation so that there is no inflammation and the skin does not turn red. These peptides - melithan and melateym - are used during the preparation for tanning to improve the adaptation of the skin to the sun. Of course, there is also a peptide for lightening the skin (melanostatin) - it, on the contrary, blocks the receptors of cells and stops the synthesis of the pigment.

INCI: Palmitoyl Tripeptide-30 (Melatime)

INCI: Acetyl Hexapeptide-1 (Melitane)

INCI: Nonapeptide-1 (Melanostatine)

Opioid peptides

Opioid peptides are peptides, whose action is similar to that of opium. They are sometimes called peptides of happy skin. They dull the sensitivity of the skin receptors to pain, change in temperature, chemical effects, make the skin much less sensitive overall and prevent the development of allergic reactions.

INCI: Acetyl Dipeptide; Cetyl Ester (Calmosensine)

INCI: Acetyl Tetrapeptide-15 (Skinasensil)

Immune peptides

Immune peptides are involved in the immune system of the skin. With age, the release of substances that activate the development of inflammation and enhance the synthesis of enzymes increases, destroying collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid. To counteract this the peptide Ridgin has been created - it is used in anti-aging products. Another immune peptide is Bodiphene; it helps to synthesize protective proteins that increase the resistance of the skin in infectious diseases.

INCI: Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-3 (Rigin)

INCI: Acetyl Dipeptyde-3 (Bodyfensine)

Advantages and Disadvantages of Peptides

Now when we covered the most important peptides, used in skin care, let's summarize the advantages of cosmetics with peptides:

  • Unlike Botox injections, skin care doesn't have strong side effects.
  • Facial expression stays natural - there is no effect of the frozen face, as it often happens after Botox injections.
  • Peptides have a regenerating effect - they give a command to work as before to the skin cells, which has a pronounced rejuvenating effect and improves the quality of the skin as a whole. An injection of botulinum toxin does not have such a rejuvenating effect.

Disadvantages:

  • Skincare products don't have such a pronounced smoothing effect as Botox injections.
  • Requires regular application for 1-2 months.
  • The relatively high cost of these products.

Scinic Peptide Ampoule

How to apply skin care products with Botox effect

Products with the effect of Botox are effective for smoothing wrinkles in the forehead and around eyes - they reduce the longitudinal and transverse wrinkles on the forehead, bridge of the nose, and the so-called "crow's foot."

However, muscle relaxants practically don't work on:

  • Nasolabial folds - these folds are formed due to deeper changes and age-related sagging of the skin.
  • Fine lines of wrinkles on the face, caused by dehydration or accumulation of a large number of dead cells on the surface of the skin - moisturizing and exfoliating procedures are needed here.
  • Eye bags and folds under the eyes - there are other effective tools that relieve swelling and strengthen the skin

How to get the maximum effect from peptides

Skincare with Peptides should be used as the course. In the beginning, these products must be applied daily in the morning and in the evening for a month. Then you can go to a supportive regime and apply the products 2-3 times a week. For example, in the morning, for another one to two months.

These products have a cumulative effect, so after 2-3 months of use, after reaching the maximum result, you'll need to take a break. After the cancellation, the Botox effect will last for several months. How long - depends on the age, the activity of your facial expressions and other individual characteristics. And in 3-6 months it will be possible to repeat the course.

At what age can I use skincare with peptides

Skincare with peptides should be regularly used as an anti-aging care from 35 years. And at a younger age of 25-30 years, it could be used to prevent or reduce existing wrinkles. These products are best to be used locally - in the eye area (crow's foot) and in the forehead and nose.

Peptides are most effective at the age of 45-50 years. Of course, people over 50-60 years can also use these products, but the effect will be somewhat less than at a younger age. And of course, those who prefer injections can use cosmetics with peptides to prolong the effect of Botox injections.

Finally, Korean skincare products with peptides:

Innisfree Jeju Lava Seawater Wrinkle Effector - Arginine/lysine Polypeptide

Missha Self Control Peeling Massage - Tripeptide-1, Acetyl Hexapeptide-8, Tripeptide-10 Citrulline, Palmitoyl Tripeptide-5

Mizon Peptide Ampoule Cream - Copper Tripeptide-1

Scinic Peptide Ampoule - Copper Tripeptide-1, Human Oligopeptide-1, Acetyl Hexapeptide-8, Polypeptide

Klairs Midnight Blue Youth Activating Drop - sh-Oligopeptide- 1, sh-Polypeptide- 1

Mizon Original Skin Energy Peptide 500 - Copper Tripeptide-1, Human Oligopeptide-1, Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4, Acetyl Hexapeptide-8, Pentapeptide-13 

TonyMoly Bio Ex-Cell Peptide Line - Acetyl hexapeptide-3, Hexacarboximetildepeptide-12

Текст про пептиды по-русски можно прочитать тут: Пептиды

- Korean Kiwi Beauty

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